Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana served with Julius Caesar in Gaul and against Pompey in the Civil Wars. Later, it fought alongside Augustus in his Cantabrian Wars and was one of the four legions Claudius took with him in his invasion of Britain in 43 CE. It survived mutiny and near decimation twice, only to recover. Although suffering heavy losses during the revolt of Boudicca, the legion rebounded and accompanied Agricola in his war against the Caledonians. The legion disappeared sometime after 120 CE.
The Fullers of Ancient Rome
The fullers of ancient Rome were launderers who washed the clothes of the city and also finished processing fabric later made into clothing, blankets, or other necessary items. They were looked down upon for their use of human and animal urine as a detergent but were among the most successful and highly-paid workers in the city.
Legio I Germanica
Legio I Germanica was a Roman legion that won acclaim early under Augustus (27 BCE - 14 CE) but was stripped of its title for cowardice. Stationed on the Lower Rhine, the legion mutinied in 14 CE and then faced disgrace when it turned traitor to Rome during the Batavian Revolt. It was disbanded by Vespasian in 70 CE.
Legio V Alaudae
Legio V Alaudae, referenced in early accounts only as the "Fifth", was one of the many legions of the Roman army that helped Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) to achieve success as a military commander in Gaul, Spain, and Africa. Later stationed along the Rhine, it participated in many Germanic campaigns until it was supposedly annihilated in Domitian's Dacian campaign.
Legions of the Dacian Wars
The Dacian Wars started after Decebalus (r. c. 87-106 CE) raided the Roman province of Moesia in 85 CE. Emperor Domitian's (r. 81-96 CE) Dacian campaigns in 86-87 CE reached an uneasy peace, but the conflict was renewed under the reign of Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117 CE). Trajan's Dacian Wars, recorded on Trajan's Column, ended with Decebalus' death, and Dacia became a Roman province.
The Eastern Trade Network of Ancient Rome
The life of wealthy Romans was filled with exotic luxuries such as cinnamon, myrrh, pepper, or silk acquired through long-distance international trade. Goods from the Far East arrived in Rome through two corridors – the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The use of different trading routes ensured a constant stream of exotic goods in the Roman Empire.
Legions of the Parthian Wars
Parthia had always been a thorn in the side of the Roman Empire. The initial campaigns by Crassus and Mark Antony were total failures, and although Trajan and Syrian governor Cassius made some progress in the 2nd century CE, both failed to eliminate the Parthians as a viable threat. The last big clash came in 198 CE under Septimius Severus, which ultimately achieved nothing but left both empires weakened.
Legions of Spain, Roman Africa & Egypt
The legions of Spain, Roman Africa, and Egypt did not see the intensity of action that prevailed elsewhere in Europe. However, the presence of these four legions - VII Gemina, IX Hispana, XXII Deiotariana, and II Traiana Fortis - was still essential for the stability of the empire.
Hadrian (l. 78-138 CE) was emperor of Rome (r. 117-138 CE) and is recognized as the third of the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius) who ruled justly. His reign marked the height of the Roman Empire, usually given as c. 117 CE, and provided a firm foundation for his successor.
Legions of Britain
After the Roman emperor Claudius (r. 41-54 CE) successfully conquered Britain in 43 CE, four legions were left there to maintain the peace: XIV Gemina, II Augusta, IX Hispana, and XX Valeria Victrix. However, by the end of the decade, XIV Gemina was replaced by II Adiutrix.
Antinous (l. c. 110-130 CE) was a youth of Bithynia who became the beloved of the Roman emperor Hadrian (l. 76-138 CE, r. 117-138 CE) from around the age of 13 until his death at nearly 20. His year of birth is unknown as are any details of his life before he met Hadrian in 123 CE.
Visitor’s Guide to Carsulae (San Damiano)
Carsulae in Umbria, central Italy, was founded c. 300 BCE and only became a prosperous urban centre after it was connected by the Via Flaminia towards the end of the 3rd century BCE. It was granted the status of municipium and acquired a range of impressive civic buildings, including a theatre, amphitheatre, forum, temples, and baths.
Visitor’s Guide to the Monuments of Hadrian’s Villa
Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Italy, is an opulent, sprawling garden-villa covering some 120 hectares (296 acres). It was built by Emperor Hadrian (76-138 CE) between 125-134 CE for use as his country estate, although the land may have originally belonged to his wife, Vibia Sabina (m. 100-136 CE).
Constantine’s Conversion to Christianity
Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) was Roman emperor from 306-337 CE and is known to history as Constantine the Great for his conversion to Christianity in 312 CE and his subsequent Christianization of the Roman Empire. His conversion was motivated in part by a vision he experienced at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in Rome in 312 CE.
Legions of the Rhine Frontier
After Julius Caesar’s (100-44 BCE) conquest of Gaul, Roman legions pushed the borders of the Roman Empire’s frontier to the banks of the Rhine River. Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) divided the newly acquired region into three provinces: Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Lugdunensis, and Gallica Belgica (the Rhine frontier). Drusus Julius Caesar (14 BCE - 48 CE) split the Rhine corridor into two separate zones: Germania Inferior (Lower Germany) and Germania Superior (Upper Germany).
Top 5 Roman Sites in Southern Spain
Almost 700 years of continuous Roman occupation have left impressive traces in the Spanish landscape. Spain was then known as 'Hispania' and is now a fascinating location for the archaeological traveller.